Composing a cantus firmus. Exercises in strict voice-leading, or species counterpoint, begin with a single, well formed musical line called the cantus firmus (fixed voice, or fixed melody; pl. cantus firmi). Cantus firmus composition gives us the opportunity to engage the following fundamental musical traits: smoothness; independence and integrity or melodic lines; variety; motion (towards a.
Beginning a third - species counterpoint Begin a third - species counterpoint below the cantus firmus with do. Unisons are permitted for the first and last dyads of the exercise. A third - species line can begin with four quarter notes in the first bar, or a quarter rest followed by three quarter notes. What is second species counterpoint?
If the counterpoint is below the cantus firmus then it must begin with the octave or unison. It cannot start with the fifth degree of the scale because when a perfect-fifth is inverted, it becomes a fourth, which Fux and others categorize as a dissonant interval.As in first species, begin a second-species counterpoint above the cantus firmus with door sol. Begin a second-species counterpoint below the cantus firmus with do. Unisons are permitted for the first and last dyads of the exercise. A second-species line can begin with two half notes in the first bar, or a half rest followed by a half note.In simple counterpoint all parts must remain in the same relative position to one another. The Cantus Firmus is a given melodic phrase that is to receive contrapuntal treatment, that is, one or more parts are to be added above or below it. The Counterpoint is any part other than the Cantus Firmus. Intervals are harmonic or melodic.
You will write another whole note line either above or below a cantus firmus. It should be noted that the cantus firmus cannot change. All of your work will involve writing another melody to go alongside the cantus firmus. Learning to write two indepedent melodies is the goal of species counterpoint. Therefore, steps must be taken in order to.
All rules which have been introduced for writing first and second species counterpoint also apply for third species: Fourth species like second species, requires two notes for every given note in the cantus firmus. In fourth species, however, the notes are connected with ties and suspensions; Fux calls this species ligature. When the ties are consonant, they connect two harmony notes. Notice.
Theory I, Video 1: Writing a cantus firmus. from First Year Music Theory. 8 years ago. This video introduces typical compositional features found in early to mid-Renaissance cantus firmus melodies. These features include certain archetypical melodic contours (arches, inverted arches, S-curves), the use of stable chord tones as peaks, the importance of balanced melody, and the avoidance of.
Name the intervals that are fine when writing a cantus firmus counterpoint line: m2, M2, m3, M3, P4, P5, m6, M6, and P8. Because cantus firmus is written for vocals, what is the MAX range from the lowest to the highest note? A tenth. Most cantus firmus ranges from the lowest to the highest note fall with.? A fifth or sixth. A musical motion for a cantus firmus has direction if it shows what.
First species counterpoint Second Species Counterpoint. Second Species counterpoint is similar to first species, except that the counterpoint melody line has double the amount of notes. If the cantus firmus is notated with semibreves, then the counterpoint line is notated with minims (or half notes). A few additional rules (or relaxations of previous rules) are added for second species.
The students progress through several species of increasing difficulty, with a very simple part that remains constant, called the cantus firmus (fixed melody). Bit by bit the student learns how to progress through the five species of counterpoint until he or she is able to write “free” counterpoint; a less rule-ridden form of counterpoint, usually written without a cantus firmus.
The first species of counterpoint involves writing a new melody above or below the cantus firmus, with one note in the counterpoint for every note of the cantus firmus. Both voices, counterpoint and cantus firmus, should move mostly by step with a few leaps, and should be as natural and effortless to sing as possible. To achieve this, do all your work away from the piano at first. Sing.
Fourth Species Counterpoint. Fourth Species deals with syncopation. In duple meter one voice has two notes to each one of the other parts, and the second of each pair is tied forward. The second of each pair is the offbeat note, so each measure begins with a note held from before. The accented note that begins each measure can be either dissonant or consonant, but if dissonant it must resolve.
After writing two parts without cantus firmus, the student is ready to add two parts simultaneously to a cantus, beginning the study of three-part counterpoint. In time, three-part writing without the cantus leads to four-part work, first with then without the given part. Thus the final stage of the study of note-against-note consonance sees the student writing four-part chord progressions.
Writing Fourth Species Counterpoint. Fourth Species This species introduces the concept of syncopation and suspension. The second note of each measure is tied into the following measure, sometimes creating a dissonance with the next note of the cantus firmus, requiring resolution. What is at work is a retardation of the movement of next note, which becomes a dissonance that resolves into a.
When writing a counterpoint below a cantus firmus, the first note of the counterpoint must always be do (P1 or P8 below the cantus). (Beginning on sol would create a dissonant fourth; beginning on fa would create a P5 but confuse listeners about the tonal context, since fa-do at the beginning of a piece is easily misheard as do-sol.) Ending a first-species counterpoint. The final note of the.